Trees can be distinguished on the basis of several factors like their height, support and rootstock. Both of the dwarf fruit trees and the miniature fruit trees are relatively smaller in size but they have different rootstocks’ (stump or part of roots that is used for grafting of cutting or bud of another plant) in order to keep up with their significant sizes;also varying with the height and need of support. A dwarf tree could be 8-10 feet however a miniature tree remains between 6-8 feet keeping it smaller.
Dwarf trees that are commonly available include nectarine, olive, pear, peach, apricot, apple, cherry, fig, citrus and quince.
Four methods to reduce fruit tree size:
The dwarf fruit trees usually on the smaller trees produce regular sized fruits but while buying such trees the end use is also considered. Potted fruit trees on the other hand in cold regions require picking a tree enduring to the zones than the current one.
- Dwarfing rootstocks
- Genetic Dwarf Fruit Trees
- Branch pruning use in the pots
- Control of Pruning in order to Produce Miniature Fruit Trees
7 Popular dwarf or miniature fruit trees:
A list of the important Miniature Fruit Trees in a limited space is as follows:
1- Dwarf Apple Tree
Dwarf apples tree is a sort of resilient and tough tree type that can bare freezing temperature of 45 degrees or less. Such trees grow in assorted conditions at small spaces and can take around three years for this. Apples thrive best in drier soil and a drier climate could make it even precious. Proper care is a compulsion in order to get quality fruit so if there is a drenched climate than apple trees want a constant drainage. Small fruit trees can estimate a less production of apples like an apple tree of about 3-4 foot may give 45 apples in variety. Popular varieties are Fuji and red delicious and the common rootstocks are Malling or the Cornell-Geneva, M27 and M9 are helpful in producing smallest ones. Pots are helpful in dwarfing the plants; pot size should be at least 16-18 inches or more.
2- Dwarf Cherry Tree:
Cherry trees can grow in the pots and produce quality fruit if care is done properly. These trees are unable to give fruit if 2 years old branches are not there; however it is also important to note that all the varieties cannot thrive in pots. Such trees need below 45 degrees F and preferable to be grown in sandy loam mixture of soil. Dwarf sweet cherry trees than the large ones can give about 10-15 quarts each year. Well-drained soil with sunlight could be the considerable sources for the fruit production. These should be spaced on dwarfed rootstocks about 5-10 feet apart. The pot size should be big for such trees like across 18 inches. The common rootstocks for cherries could be Colt or Gisela 5.
3- Dwarf Pear Tree:
Another kind of dwarf fruit tree is pear dwarf tree, pears could be considered as the largest of such varieties pruning in early spring or winter. Slightly rich acidic soil with a pH of 6.0-6.5 with sunlight is favorable for this fruit tree. Such trees are spaced about 8 feet apart and semi-dwarf at 13feet apart. Pear fruit trees are winter favorable trees having temperature about -25 degrees F. Container should be deep and minimum of 24inches. Common rootstocks for dwarf pear trees include EMH, Quince A and Quince C.
4- Dwarf Apricot Tree:
The dwarf varieties of this fruit can be produced with the help of containers. Early spring is the season for apricots to bloom; trees are strong enough to cope with winter temperature about 20 degrees F. These trees can be planted any time except when it is extreme hot. They need much warmth during the summer, however 2-3 years old is good to be bought at buying time. Several colors of such trees could be seen in the yard like white in the blossoms, bronze foliage and yellow in the fall. It is one of the stone fruit tree like peach, cherry and nectarine. Pears must be spaced 20 feet apart in general and is usually 5-10 feet in height. Common rootstocks include Citation, Lovell, St.Julien and pot size could be 10-15 inches.
5- Dwarf Orange Tree:
Planting fruit tree like this comes in the citrus category like lemons, mandarins. It can preferably be grown in wide pots rather than deep pots as it has a shallow root system; a dwarf orange tree is a potted fruit tree to harvest; preferring indoor planting conditions. However, sun rooms make it healthy for the tree. These trees cannot be more than 3-4 feet tall while other varieties can be of 8-12 feet, self-pollinating with rich soil. Preferable temperature is 65-45 degrees F at day and 50-55 degrees F at night. One common rootstock could be Trifoliate. The pots allowing free drainage with about 6-9 inches diameter is suitable for these trees.
6- Dwarf Avocado Tree:
Avocado fruit tree is an ideal one as it bears fruit throughout the year, not able to deal with temperature below freezing. If sunshine is proper then it can take below 30 degrees F indoor, varying to harvest in summer or winter depending upon tree type. These growing fruit trees could be from 10-12 feet tall producing fruits in 1-3 years. Avocado trees demands sandy loam, able to withstand alkaline soil too. These trees can be about 3-4 feet tall and enjoys full sun, temperature to deal with cold is 28 degrees F. Large pots would produce quality ones of about 20+ gallon.
7- Dwarf Plum Tree:
This dwarf patio fruit tree is grafted not affecting the fruit size. A container of about 12inches in diameter is appropriate with protection from frost. These trees need either less or no pruning and spacing should be about 15-20 feet apart. If pruning is required then only March and September are favorable. Sunlight is good for production along with well drained soil. This tree starts production by 3 year; 2m in height and width and could also be used for jams. The common rootstocks include Pixy or St Julien A .The soil conditions should be loamy and best temperature for storing is about 31-32 degrees F.